final submission 3

    Your final submission is now due. Your final submission is a collection of the all the previous course project sections compiled into one cohesive paper. Be sure to include the following: Include all sections of the course project in the order that they were submitted.

    1. Provide subtitles for each section.
    2. Include both a separate title page and reference page.
    3. Changes and revisions based on instructor feedback.
    4. Final submission should not exceed 5 pages in length.
    5. Correct grammar, punctuation and spelling mechanics
  • Population Study

Community mapping is also known as Public Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS). It is a significant tool that can be used to narrate a story about what is happening in the communities. The information collected can be analyzed using different types of statistical analysis to identify relationships with other data such as socioeconomic data. This too is critical in the service agency since it has the capability of identifying “hot spot” or vulnerable populations in targeting interventions. In this paper, we will be looking at the use of community mapping tool to evaluate admission to drug treatment facilities. The use of community mapping tool is useful in understanding the effectiveness in the accessibility of drug treatment facilities and identifying the most affected regions in the community.

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The community mapping makes use of community-level indicators that focus more on populations rather than individuals. Thus, they demonstrate what is happening at community level as opposed to individual level and they offer objective measures of outcomes as compared to other research instruments (Minkler, 2012). For instance, when monitoring the rate of alcoholism, the tool will look at the community-level indicator of sales of liquor in the community as opposed to pooling people together to find out their rate of liquor in a day.

There are many places that I can find information on community-level indicators such as Health Indicators Warehouse (HIW), Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) and the best option is always the US Census Bureau, which provides demographic information. I will ensure that the community-level indicators that I use will be focused and relevant and scientifically defendable. For instance, in my evaluation on the progress of the drug treatment facilities I will use the community-level indicators to measure the admissions to the treatment facilities. The outcomes that I will measure are drug and alcohol related arrests, under-age drunk driving incidents and also nighttime car accidents in the community.

  • Community mapping

Public participatory geographic information systems (PPGIS) which are also known as a community mapping is a research instrument that has been designed to narrate stories or give information about what is happening in different communities. Community mapping can be used to collect information of communities concerning health community violence, obesity, pedestrian safety, the environment, toxic emissions, infrastructure, restaurants and health centers among many other community issues (Suding et al., 2008).

For my agency, which is about the causes of environmental change in our locality, the community mapping instrument can be used to provide detailed data concerning the agency. By using this instrument, all community members will be informed about the topic and be issued with questionnaires to fill. The questionnaires will contain questions about economic and social issues which the community members think are contributing towards the environmental change. After that exercise, all the questionnaires shall be recollected, and all the answers shall be analyzed. Most repeated or similar responses will be used to generalize the primary causes of environmental change in that specific locality.

After the analysis, necessary remedies that can be used to reduce the environmental change shall be applied to the community through educating the community members so that they can take the responsibility of implementing the solution measures. As a result, the environmental change shall be regulated or cubed completely. This research instrument is the best as opposed to other instruments because it involves the community members who are well conversant with their environment and also they have concrete information about what issues are causing the environment to change. Because many people do not like their residential area to change, it is clear that they will give correct information so that a quick remedy is implemented to stop repercussions of environmental change.

The study will use sampling as the data collection method because conducting a study on the entire population is time consuming and expensive. Sampling is a method of collecting data that involves choosing people or elements from a population with a view of studying them and then use the results gained to generalize the results to represent the whole population (Emmel, Seaman, & Kenney, 2013). It is vital for a researcher to be very careful when using sampling because if the units selected are not appropriate then the results will be inaccurate and a wrong representation of the population. The study will see about 100-150 people participate. At least with this range of people it will be inclusive of all groups. So, the results will be a fair representation of the society where the sampled individuals coexist. Less people might not provide enough information while more participants might end up giving repetition of what the predecessors have provided.

A research study process is more than just going to the field and collecting data, but requires proper preparations. Also, it is at the preparation stage where the researcher decides on what methodologies will be employed and what criteria will be used to get the participants. Importantly, the research goes on through recording, analysing and presenting information after collecting the data are also determined. Approximately, this study will take about a three weeks to a month before the presentation and publishing of the information.This study will make use of population parameters in the presentation stage to expound on the findings of the study. Some of the commonly used parameters are mean, standard deviation as well as variance (Sahu, Pal & Das, 2015). Population parameter is a fixed measure of a given population that can be utilized to describe and define the certain population.

Validity and reliability

While collecting data, where measuring devices are used, it is important to test the validity and reliability of the assessments tools used. This is because the results obtained in the tests are, in most cases, used to either proof or disproof a certain theory. In research, validity refers to the accuracy of the study answers to specific study questions or how strong the conclusion of the study is. On the other hand, reliability refers to the measure of how reliable, stable, consistent or trustworthy a test is in measuring the same thing each time.

To establish the reliability of a test, I would use a number of methods. First, I would use the Test-Retest reliability which involves administering the same test to a different group of subjects on at least two distinct occasions. If the score turns out to be similar for all groups of subjects, the test is reliable. Secondly, I would use the Parallel Forms Reliability which involves the use of two measures taken by the same group of subjects. The test is termed as reliable if the two tests give the same results. Thirdly, I would use the Inter-Rater Reliability which involves the use of two or more observers rating the same subjects after which their observations are correlated (Shuttleworth, 2018).

To determine if the results of a test are valid, I would use a number of the methods. First, I would use the concurrent validity which compares the test with an already existing valid test. Secondly, I would use the content validity tests the capability of the test to include the required contents. Moreover, I would make use of the predictive validity which compares the results of a test with the predicted results (Heffner, 2018).


Emmel, N., Seaman, J., & Kenney, F. (2013). Sampling and choosing Cases in

Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach. New Delhi: Sage Publishers.

Sahu, P. K., Pal, S. R., & Das, A. K. (2015). Estimation and Inferential Statistics. New

Delhi: Springer.

Minkler, M. (Ed.). (2012). Community organizing and community building for health and

welfare. Rutgers University Press.

Suding, K. N., Lavorel, S., Chapin, F. S., Cornelissen, J. H., Diaz, S., Garnier, E., & NAVAS, M.

L. (2008). Scaling environmental change through the community‐level: a trait‐based response‐and‐effect framework for plants. Global Change Biology, 14(5), 1125-1140.

Heffner, D. C. (2018). Chapter 7.3 Test Validity and Reliability. AllPsych.

Shuttleworth, M. (2018). Validity and Reliability. EXPLORABLE.

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