Course Project Annotated Bibliography English homework help

The annotated bibliography will present an introduction and five reference citations with annotations. The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to determine the appropriateness of the sources to the argument you are developing for the Course Project. The format of the proposal is an introductory paragraph followed by an alphabetized list of sources with two paragraphs of annotation after each source. Use APA documentation to document any sources referenced in your proposal. When you are finished, save the document as <your last name. Wk4 Annotated Bibliography> and submit it to the Dropbox by the end of the week.

The Annotated Bibliography is worth 100 points. See Doc Sharing for the following support documents.

  • An assignment template
  • A sample assignment
  • The assignment grading rubric

Before you turn in your assignment, proofread and edit carefully for spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Not every error will be flagged automatically in word-processing programs, and some that are flagged as errors are actually correct.

The Annotated Bibliography is worth 100 points and is due at the end of the week in the Dropbox.

View the tutorial on formatting a Word document, which can be found in THE|HUB.

Submit your assignment to the Dropbox, located at the top of this page. For instructions on how to use the Dropbox, read these step-by-step instructions.

See the Syllabus section “Due

DIRECTION

Annotated Bibliography for [your topic here]

Your Full Name

Your University

Annotated Bibliography for [Your Title Here]

To start your Annotated Bibliography, write an introductory paragraph to gain the attention of your reader and set the context for your research. Start with the attention-grabbing idea, such as an anecdote or fact about your topic. Provide your working thesis statement that answers your research question and provides the direction of your argument. Make corrections to your working thesis based on feedback from your Proposal assignment. The annotated bibliography will include five annotated references and is to include a summary paragraph that summarizes the source and the author’s main points and relevance to your research, and the credibility, reliability and timeliness of the source material.

Put your first alphabetical reference here in correct APA format. Consult the textbook or Noodle Tools for tips on using APA style. Use a hanging indent paragraph structure; pay attention to capitalization, spacing, italics, and punctuation. Click here for more on Noodle Tools http://library.devry.edu/pdfs/using-NoodleTools.pd…

Start the summary by stating the main points of the article here. Provide a high-level summary of the author’s main points and assess the credibility, reliability, and timeliness of the source.

Start your assessment here: Next add your comment. How will you use the source? Does it define or explain the problem or issue? Support or contrast your thesis? Identify the section of your project where you could include your source. Avoid obvious ideas such as “this article was interesting and will be used in my paper” or “this source will help me prove my ideas.” Instead, be specific about where this source will be used and which ideas it will help to prove. Do not copy and paste anything; instead, summarize ideas in your words. Explain specifically the type of support that the source will provide and where it can be used in your project. Add the remaining entries to meet the minimum assignment requirements. Before you turn in the assignment, select the Review tab from the MS Word toolbar above and click on Spelling & Grammar. Check each flagged error. Then rename this document using File>Save As and save the file with your last name.first.Anno Bib.doc. Be sure when it’s graded to read the comments so that you can incorporate improvements into your next assignment.

Put your second alphabetical reference here in correct APA format. Consult the textbook or Noodle Tools for tips on using APA style. Use a hanging indent paragraph structure; pay attention to capitalization, spacing, italics, and punctuation. Click here for more on Noodle Tools http://library.devry.edu/pdfs/using-NoodleTools.pd…

Start the summary by stating the main points of the article here. Provide a high-level summary of the author’s main points and assess the credibility, reliability, and timeliness of the source.

Start your assessment here: Next add your comment. How will you use the source? Does it define or explain the problem or issue? Support or contrast your thesis? Identify the section of your project in which you could include the source. Avoid obvious ideas such as “this article was interesting and will be used in my paper” or “this source will help me prove my ideas.” Instead, be specific about where this source will be used and which ideas it will help to prove. Do not copy and paste anything; instead, summarize ideas in your words. Explain specifically the type of support that the source will provide and where it can be used in your project. Add the remaining entries to meet the minimum assignment requirements. Before you turn in the assignment, select the Review tab from the MS Word toolbar above and click on Spelling & Grammar. Check each flagged error. Then rename this document using File>Save As and save the file with your last name.first.Anno Bib.doc. Be sure when it’s graded to read the comments so that you can incorporate improvements into your next assignment.

Put your third alphabetical reference here in correct APA format. Consult the textbook or Noodle Tools for tips on using APA style. Use a hanging indent paragraph structure; pay attention to capitalization, spacing, italics, and punctuation. Click here for more on Noodle Tools http://library.devry.edu/pdfs/using-NoodleTools.pd…

Start the summary by stating the main points of the article here. Provide a high-level summary of the author’s main points and assess the credibility, reliability, and timeliness of the source.

Start your assessment here: Next add your comment. How will you use the source? Does it define or explain the problem or issue? Support or contrast your thesis? Identify the section of your project in which you could include the source. Avoid obvious ideas such as “this article was interesting and will be used in my paper” or “this source will help me prove my ideas.” Instead, be specific about where this source will be used and which ideas it will help to prove. Do not copy and paste anything; instead, summarize ideas in your words. Explain specifically the type of support that the source will provide and where it can be used in your project. Add the remaining entries to meet the minimum assignment requirements. Before you turn in the assignment, select the Review tab from the MS Word toolbar above and click on Spelling & Grammar. Check each flagged error. Then rename this document using File>Save As and save the file with your last name.first.Anno Bib.doc. Be sure when it’s graded to read the comments so that you can incorporate improvements into your next assignment.

Put your fourth alphabetical reference here in correct APA format. Consult the textbook or Noodle Tools for tips on using APA style. Use a hanging indent paragraph structure; pay attention to capitalization, spacing, italics, and punctuation. Click here for more on Noodle Tools http://library.devry.edu/pdfs/using-NoodleTools.pd…

Start the summary by stating the main points of the article here. Provide a high-level summary of the author’s main points and assess the credibility, reliability, and timeliness of the source.

Start your assessment here:Next add your comment. How will you use the source? Does it define or explain the problem or issue? Support or contrast your thesis? Identify the section of your project in which you could include the source. Avoid obvious ideas such as “this article was interesting and will be used in my paper” or “this source will help me prove my ideas.” Instead, be specific about where this source will be used and which ideas it will help to prove. Do not copy and paste anything; instead, summarize ideas in your words. Explain specifically the type of support that the source will provide and where it can be used in your project. Add the remaining entries to meet the minimum assignment requirements. Before you turn in the assignment, select the Review tab from the MS Word toolbar above and click on Spelling & Grammar. Check each flagged error. Then rename this document using File>Save As and save the file with your last name.first.Anno Bib.doc. Be sure when it’s graded to read the comments so that you can incorporate improvements into your next assignment.

Put your fifth alphabetical reference here in correct APA format. Consult the textbook or Noodle Tools for tips on using APA style. Use a hanging indent paragraph structure; pay attention to capitalization, spacing, italics, and punctuation. Click here for more on Noodle Tools http://library.devry.edu/pdfs/using-NoodleTools.pd…

Start the summary by stating the main points of the article here. Provide a high-level summary of the author’s main points and assess the credibility, reliability, and timeliness of the source.

Start your assessment here: Next add your comment. How will you use the source? Does it define or explain the problem or issue? Support or contrast your thesis? Identify the section of your project in which you could include the source. Avoid obvious ideas such as “this article was interesting and will be used in my paper” or “this source will help me prove my ideas.” Instead, be specific about where this source will be used and which ideas it will help to prove. Do not copy and paste anything; instead, summarize ideas in your words. Explain specifically the type of support that the source will provide and where it can be used in your project. Add the remaining entries to meet the minimum assignment requirements. Before you turn in the assignment, select the Review tab from the MS Word toolbar above and click on Spelling & Grammar. Check each flagged error. Then rename this document using File>Save As and save the file with your last name.first.Anno Bib.doc. Be sure when it’s graded to read the comments so that you can incorporate improvements into your next assignment.

SAMPLE

Annotated Bibliography for Standardized Tests

Sammy North

DeVry University
Annotated Bibliography for Standardized Tests

Everyone is affected by the strength or weakness of our educational system, from the students and their ability to succeed in college and in the workplace, to the employers who hire them—and everyone in between. Every taxpayer is a stakeholder in education, because these tests are paid for by tax dollars, and the return on investment in education is not where it should be. Standardized tests should be abolished and replaced with end-of-year subject tests because they will save time and money, lead to increased mastery of core subjects, and diminish dropout rates.

Clemmitt, M. (2007, July 13). Students under stress. CQ Researcher, 17, 577–600. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/

This article discusses the pressure that students face in public schools today. Homework has increased, as has stress caused by high-stakes standardized testing. This type of pressure results in less time for children to play, sleep, and interact with their parents. The solution is to limit the time children spend on homework, but given that American students lag behind their international peers in tests of basic subjects, decreasing schoolwork seems not to be the answer. Although Clemmitt is a journalist and not an expert on the subject, she cites many experts and authoritative sources to lend credibility to the article, including books and surveys from education researchers and college professors. The article provides a balanced view of homework with arguments from experts across the country.

My assessment: The article indicates that standardized testing discourages teachers, and the pressure to perform on these tests results in teachers transferring the pressure onto their students. This idea can be used to support the argument that these tests reduce schools to test-taking institutions.

Hillocks, G. (2002). The testing trap: How state writing assessments control learning. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Hillocks, a University of Chicago professor of English and an author of several books and articles on teaching and writing, investigated writing assessment in five states and interviewed state test officials, teachers, and administrators in six districts in each state. He developed a comprehensive picture of writing instruction and the “organized blether” (p. 80) seen as good writing. Nine conclusions resulted from Hillocks’ investigation: including the finding that the standard five-paragraph essay taught in these schools is detrimental to students’growth as writers, because tests teach students that any reasons used to support ideas don’t warrant further examination for consistency, impact, or relevance. Writing tests impose a way of thinking during the timed writing that removes the necessity of critical thought; teachers do not practice revision or drafting stages of the writing process. Testing drives the curriculum in writing courses toward formulaic thinking and writing.

My assessment: This book will be used to underscore the idea that standardized tests in writing that Hillocks examined had a negative effect on students, and that has not changed in the years since the book was published. Hillocks’ ideas will be used in the sections where I will report on the history of standardized tests and how they have driven the curriculum, with negative effects.

McNeil, L., & Valenzuela, A. (2001). The harmful impact of the TAAS system of testing in Texas: Beneath the accountability rhetoric. In M. Kornhaber & G. Orfield (Eds.), Raising standards or raising barriers? Inequality and high stakes testing in public education (pp.127–150). New York, NY: Century Foundation.

McNeil, a professor of education at Rice University in Texas, and Valenzuela, a professor of education at the University of Texas, have written extensively on writing and assessment, and in this study investigated the writing assessment in their state, the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS). They found that TAAS lowers the quality of teaching in the areas tested and particularly affects—in a very negative way—students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Plus, the time spent teaching and learning about subjects not tested by TAAS suffers, because many schools in urban areas spend considerable time just teaching what is tested. The lowest levels of information are taught, leaving many students disengaged. The test was once seen as a reform of the educational system but according to the authors, TAAS is not the answer and only benefits companies who produce test-taking materials.

My assessment: This study will be used to establish common ground and to recognize the opposing view that standardized tests like the TAAS had good intentions—to help reform education and improve learning. However, not only did it fail to do so, but it also negatively affected the quality of teaching and student learning. It reaches some of the same conclusions that Hillocks’ study did, so the negative aspects of standardized testing will be supported in my project by more than one expert source.

Onosko, J. (2011). Race to the Top leaves children and future citizens behind. Democracy & Education, 19(2), 1–11. Retrieved from http://democracyeducationjournal.org/home/

Onosko’s article is about the Race to the Top (RTT) program and its negative effects regarding education in general and students in particular. Although it had good intentions—to increase accountability, raise standards, and reward improvement—it has only led to more problems. He explains eight weaknesses of RTT, including the argument that high-stakes tests endorsed by this initiative have not achieved the goal of raising students’ math and reading test scores. Also, this initiative created the conditions for the Atlanta teachers cheating scandal; moreover, it lowers teachers’ morale, provides a disincentive to enter the teaching profession, and limits the development of students’ full intellectual potential. Onosko, who is a professor of education at the University of New Hampshire and wrote this article for the peer-reviewed journal Democracy & Education, foresees further devastating consequences unless the course of RTT is changed.

My assessment: This article about the Race to the Top (RTT) initiative will help to support several of the points in my paper. I will use the Atlanta teachers as a specific example and an appeal to reason. The cheating scandal that is identified in this article resulted from the environment of rewards and punishment created in many school districts from this initiative. Also, ideas from this article will help me in detailing the history of the problem of RTT, as well as its effects on teachers and their profession.

Ravitch, D. (2011). Dictating to the schools: A look at the effect of the Bush and Obama administration on schools. Education Digest, 76(8), 4–9. Retrieved from http://www.eddigest.com/

New York University education Professor Ravitch is an outspoken critic of the assessments that have come out of the Bush and Obama administrations, which is intriguing, given that she used to be a government education official (Assistant Secretary of Education) when Bush was in office. So she comes from a unique position to offer her arguments regarding government policies on education, which have led the public to believe that our schools are failing, when any failures are the direct result of legislation that funds standardized testing, most recently with Race to the Top (RTT). RTT creates competition between states to raise test scores and receive the financial rewards. There is no evidence that these tests or the reforms that they have engendered have improved the quality of education; on the contrary, these tests measure a narrow set of skills, and teachers focus on these skills because their annual performance evaluations are partly determined by students’ test scores. In the future, she argues, we should expect more cheating and “gaming” the system, as well as less time and attention spent on any subject not directly tested, such as science and history. Students are improving in test-taking strategies and not math and reading; the number of college students taking remediation courses in these subjects has not decreased. Tests should be used to diagnose problems and help students, not as a carrots-and-sticks strategy.

My assessment: This article will be used when I present the history of standardized tests. The No Child Left Behind legislation in the Bush administration, followed by Race to the Top in the Obama administration, have made standardized tests front and center in the national conversation about education, and the negative effects of these tests will be discussed using Ravitch’s ideas. Though they had good intentions, these tests have not fulfilled the promise of raising the quality of education in our schools, and have instead left a trail of broken promises, high school dropouts, and no substantial returns on investment. Our children have been left behind and are falling to the bottom of the heap.

ARTICLE

Bullying in schools: why it happens, how it makes young people feel and what we can do about it Jeremy Sidea* and Kelley Johnsonb

aEducational Psychologist, Inclusion Services, Monkton Park, Winterborne Monkton, Dorchester, UK; bDirector of the Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

In spite of decades of research and more recent guidance by Government, bullying in schools remains a serious concern to young people and to educational practitioners. This two year qualitative study explored the meanings eight teenagers gave to bullying they had experienced, and related this to an analysis of previous research and school policies about bullying. The findings from the study revealed that bullying affected the subjectivity of young people, including how they positioned themselves and believed themselves to be positioned by others. It also found previous research and school policies focused on the behavioural aspects of bullying, neglecting the subjective meanings that it had for those who experienced it. The research findings suggested that a more open approach by adults to what bullying means to individuals, and clearer guidance to teachers on how to work with them about subjective meanings, may provide a new direction in supporting young people who have been bullied. Keywords: understanding bullying; bullying in schools; Foucault

Introduction Bullying in schools is an issue which, in spite of a strong body of research literature, and government guidance designed to reduce bullying, continues to affect an estimated 50–80% of young people (Department for Children Schools and Families, Special Educational Needs, 2010; Oliver & Candappa, 2003). Approximately 16 children each year in the UK commit suicide as a result of being bullied (Marr & Field, 2001). The serious nature of this problem has been recognised through a raft of national government strategies (Direct Gov Parents, 2010; Secondary SEAL, 2010) and non-government interventions (Beatbullying, 2010; Childline, 2010; Kidscape, 2010). Guidance and interventions have, in part, been informed by research which has sought to define bullying and to identify its effects on young people who have experienced it. To some extent definitions of bullying remain contested. For example, while most definitions stress the importance of the repetition of “hurtful” behaviours as a primary characteristic of bullying (Department for Children Schools and Families, 2007), others stress the importance of a power differential between those who bully and those who experience bullying (Baldry, 2003; Rigby, 1996; Woods & Wolke, 2004). Bullying has been characterised by a range of behaviours including

*Corresponding author. Email: j.side@dorsetcc.gov.uk

© 2014 Association of Educational Psychologists

Educational Psychology in Practice, 2014 Vol. 30, No. 3, 217–231, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02667363.2014.915209

physical aggression, verbal abuse, cyber attacks and social rejection. In this paper the following working definition of bullying is used:

Behaviour by an individual or group, usually repeated over time, that intentionally hurts another individual or group either physically or emotionally. However, schools will wish to involve the whole school community in agreeing the definition of bullying that will be used in their own anti-bullying or behaviour policy … (Department for Children Schools and Families, 2007 summary) The authors are not uncritical of this definition but nonetheless have used it as a starting point because it is part of current government guidance to schools and therefore is likely to be the one most commonly used in school policies in relation to bullying. Much of the government guidance relies on the results of research undertaken to better understand bullying. Such research has revealed that those who are bullied are more likely than their non-bullied peers to: have difficulties in achieving academic success (Beran, Hughes, & Lupart, 2008), experience depression and anxiety (Peskin, Tortolero, Markham, Addy, & Baumler, 2007 see also Campell & Morrison, 2007), have suicidal feelings (Klomek et al., 2008) or chronic stress (Newman, Holden, & Delville, 2005 see also Dao et al., 2006) and experience physical symptoms of sleeplessness and helplessness (Due et al., 2005). While there is a growing body of research in relation to bullying there is little that focuses on the subjective meanings it has for young people who experience it (Hepburn, 1997). In spite of extensive research which has added to an understanding of the nature of bullying and its effects, bullying continues. The research reported in this paper sought to explore if there were other ways of understanding bullying which may provide new ways of managing it or supporting young people more effectively. The approach taken in the research was a discursive analysis drawing on Foucault’s work (Foucault, 1977, 1978, see also Rose, 1990) which allowed for a deconstruction of how bullying was constituted by research, school policy and by young people who had experienced it. Discourse is a contested but central part of Foucault’s ideas (see Alvesson, 2002; Gee, 2008; Potter & Wetherell, 2007; Weedon, 1987). In this paper discourse is defined in the following way:

… discourses specify truth as it is known at any particular time in history … they are concerned with the exercise of power in relation to the subjects which they constitute … discourses constitute and reveal the subjectivity of the people with whom they are concerned … discourses themselves are subject to change and challenge … (Johnson, 1998, p. 15) Discourses can be seen as combinations of knowledge and their use in practice through the exercise of power. Within the context of bullying, discourses are bodies of knowledge which construct bullying as a cultural object. They prescribe the ways in which it is understood and how it is managed in practice. They also focus on the way in which people are subject to power and knowledge and how they are positioned in relation to others (Henriques, Holloway, Urwin, Venn, & Walkerdine, 1998; Hollway, 1994; Kendall & Wickham, 2003).

218 J. Side and K. Johnson

Method Research questions The research questions used in this study were: How does previous research construct the subject of bullying? How far does policy and practice in schools address the subjective experience of bullying? What meanings do young people who have been bullied give to the experience? How does bullying affect the way young people position themselves in relation to others?

Design This research was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, and a literature and school anti-bullying policy analysis. A discursive approach was taken to identify existing discourses in relation to bullying. The policy and literature analyses were then considered in relation to discourses and meanings ascribed to bullying by eight young people who participated in the study.

Literature review A literature search was carried out to identify research studies undertaken over the last 15 years. It included both qualitative and quantitative studies relating to bullying in general, and bullying in schools in particular, in both the UK and internationally. The resulting 42 studies were then critically examined using the following questions: What is the meaning(s) given to bullying by these studies? What knowledge does it create? How are those who are bullied positioned by this knowledge?

School anti-bullying policy analysis An analysis of government guidance to schools in relation to bullying, and school policies on bullying from the three schools included in the study, was conducted. The following questions were used as a guide: What is the intention of the policy? How is its position justified? How clearly defined are the objectives? Who is seen as the subject of the policy? Who is the audience of the policy? What is missing from the policies? What is the meaning conveyed by the policies? How are those bullied positioned by the message in the policy?

Educational Psychology in Practice 219

This analysis was undertaken after the first interview with participants, and each participant was asked their views on the policy relevant to their school. Questions guiding this discussion were: Did you know about this policy? Were you involved in writing it? Did you use it or was it helpful in gaining support when you were bullied? Were the actions listed in the policy carried out when you were bullied? What else do you think should be included in the policy?

Interviews An interview guide was developed as a basis for the first of two semi-structured recorded interviews with participants. The guide included contextual questions such as age and family circumstances, as well as questions relating to their interests and feelings about school. These were followed by questions which focussed particularly on bullying as a subjective exp

 
Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!
Use Discount Code "Newclient" for a 15% Discount!

NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.