art assignment 2

  • Review again the Canvas Module B, including the Writing and Q&A Guidelines PDF
  • Read and review the Chapters 03, 04, 05, 06, and 07 in course textbook A World of Art by Sayre
  • After reading and review is complete, write a complete response for ALL of the questions below (near the bottom, after all instructions and guidance points are provided).

The length of each response will vary, depending on the nature of the question. Written responses will be assessed based on the Grading Key for Written Responses Q&A and students must adhere to the Writing and Q&A Guidelines and Requirements PDF. All of the responses must be evidence-based upon the content in pages presented in this module AND previous module pages; students will NOT write opinions or interpretations of their own.

EXAMPLE of a written response that meets all expectations (including citations from vocab guides, study guides, and textbook):

Question:

Citing from the Vocabulary Guide 1, please define Neoclassicism. Then based upon and citing from studies in the History of Western Architecture and Art, in Chapters 28 and 29, please discuss the style of Neoclassicism: what reasons specifically motivated artists and architects in late 18th Century France and United States to adopt Neoclassicism? Please respond by including a discussion of French artist Jacques-Louis David’s 1784 Oath of the Horatii painting AND American architect Robert Mills’ 1835 design for the United States Treasury Building in Washington, D.C. Please write a complete response to BOTH questions. This written response is best organized into three (3) or four (4) comprehensive paragraphs and will require approximately 550 to 600 words in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations.

David, Oath of the Horatii

Jacques Louis David, Oath of the Horatii 1784 France

US Treasury Department

Robert Mills, U.S.Treasury Building 1836-1842, United States

Written Response:

According to the Vocabulary Guide 1, the term Neoclassicism refers to a style of art and architecture in 18th and 19th Centuries in Europe and the United States, marking a general revival of interest in the aesthetics and ideas of Classical Antiquity, that is, of ancient Greece and ancient Rome (ART 2C Vocabulary Guide 1, pg. 02).

Artists in late 18th Century France were motivated to adopt Neoclassicism for reasons that were essentially political. During the late 18th Century occurred the French Revolution, in which a large-scale uprising of laboring classes both rural and urban, led by educated middle-class thinkers of the Enlightenment, successfully overthrew the French monarchy. For many French artists working during this period, the ancient Greek and Roman styles offered a visual aesthetic of simplicity, heroism and self-sacrifice that corresponded with the spirit of the French Revolution (Sterlinger, pg 217). In Neoclassical visual art, the postures and gestures of figures were modeled after ancient Roman statuary, such as the Augustus of Primaporta or the reliefs on the Column of Trajan (pg. 211).

An example of this, the 1784 painting by Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, visually communicated support for the Revolution by connecting French citizens with the heroic warriors of ancient Rome. The painting represents a narrative from an ancient Roman legend involving two warring cities, and the three brothers who were willing to sacrifice their lives for the good of Rome (Sterlinger, pg. 217). David strongly believed that paintings of noble events in ancient history would encourage moral obligation, patriotism and civic virtue in revolutionary France (pg. 218). Also, the visual simplicity of the Oath of the Horatii is notable when compared to paintings of the previous Rococo and non-religious Baroque styles of the upper-class and aristocracy, respectively. In fact, the visual simplicity of the Oath of the Horatii painting had an austerity that has long been interpreted as a conscious reaction to the Rococo and Baroque styles’ extravagance and luxury, as well as a condemnation of the upper-class and aristocracy who maintained centuries of authoritarian rule in France (pg. 218)

Like the Revolution in France, the concurrent late 18th Century American Revolution was led by educated middle-class thinkers of the Enlightenment, whose colonial and allied troops successfully overthrew the English monarchy. Also, like the art and architecture of the French Revolution, architect Robert Mills’ 1835 design for the new U.S. Treasury Building in Washington D.C. could not be fashioned in the previous Rococo or non-religious Baroque styles because those luxurious and extravagant styles did not reflect the values or revolutionary spirit in the new American Republic, the United States (Sterlinger, pg. 229). It is important to remember that the Neoclassical visual aesthetic was rooted in the ancient Classical period Greek style, which was a style founded in the values of rationalism, idealism, democracy and humanism. The Enlightenment thinkers of 18th Century Europe and America inspired revolutions in support of rational thinking and democracy, including separation of Church and State, the right to vote in an electoral process, the right to assemble, the right to an attorney and fair trial, and the right to publish without censorship. The Neoclassical style of clarity, order, balance and restraint was much more fitting as a visual expression of rationalism and democratic ideals — as well as morality — in the United States. In Robert Mills’ 1835 design for the Treasury Building in Washington D.C., the Neoclassical style was adopted to represent temperance, morality, patriotism, idealism, and civic virtue (pg. 229). Ultimately, Neoclassicism offered a conservative visual style worthy of stately buildings for the government of the United States, but with stricter moral standards for its revolutionary population (pg. 230).

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Another EXAMPLE of a response that meets all expectations (including citations from study guides, textbook):

Question:

The Woman or “Venus” of Willendorf (ca. 28,000 – 24,000 B.C.E.) from Austria, and the Human Figure (ca. 6500 B.C.E.) from ‘Ain Ghazal, Jordan, are BOTH sculptural representations of the human form. However, these two sculptural representations were informed by significantly different historical circumstances. With this in mind, please write a comparative analysis, discussing specific ways in which the relatively much newer Human Figure of ‘Ain Ghazal differs from the much older “Venus” of Willendorf AND please explain how these differences seen in the Human Figure of ‘Ain Ghazal are representative of major historical changes for human beings. This written response is best organized into three (3) or four (4) comprehensive paragraphs, and will require approximately 700 words in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations.

Venus of Willendorf

Woman or “Venus” of Willendorf, Austria, ca. 28,000 – 24,000 B.C.E. Paleolithic

Ain Ghazal Figure 'Ain-Ghazal figure

Human Figures from ‘Ain Ghazal, Jordan, ca. 6500 B.C.E. Neolithic

Written Response:

The “Venus” of Willendorf (ca. 28,000 – 24,000 B.C.E.), from Austria, and the Human Figure (ca. 6500 B.C.E.), from ‘Ain Ghazal, Jordan, are both sculptural representations of a human form; beyond this similarity, the two art works are different in almost every way.

The “Venus” of Willendorf was created during the Paleolithic period (ca. 30,000 to 9,000 B.C.E.). This period corresponds to the last Great Ice Age, when frozen glaciers covered much of the European continent. The Paleolithic peoples were nomadic, that is, they moved from place to place following the herds of animals as the glaciers froze and thawed (Study Guide Chapter 01 pg. 01). The nomadic culture of the Paleolithic people helps to explain the very small size of the “Venus” of Willendorf, only 4 and 3/8 inches, because only a very small art work could be carried from place to place (Study Guide Chapter 01 pg. 02). The “Venus” of Willendorf is believed to have some symbolic purpose, as the Paleolithic peoples did have the capacity for spoken language and sign-making (pg. 01). The exaggerated size of the sculpture’s breasts, womb and belly, suggest that it might have been a symbol of female fertility, especially because survival was difficult during the Paleolithic period and healthy child-bearing women were very important (pg. 01). Beyond meanings of fertility, other analysis suggests that Paleolithic female sculptures, such as the “Venus” of Willendorf, were used as communication devices to create alliances between hunter-gatherer clans (Stokstad, pg. 07). This also points to the fact that survival was difficult during the Paleolithic period, and interactions and alliances among humans were highly necessary (Stokstad, pg. 07).

Meanwhile, the relatively much newer Human Figure from ‘Ain Ghazal was created during the Neolithic Period (ca. 8,000 – 3,500 B.C.E.). The Neolithic period corresponds to the agricultural developments occurring in various regions of the world, in which humans learned how to successfully domestic animals and grow their own food. The emerging human practice of harvesting crops and raising cattle is known historically as the Agricultural Revolution. The results of the Agricultural Revolution during the Neolithic Period allowed for another revolution to subsequently occur, that is, human settlement (Study Guide Chapter 02 pg. 01). Situated along the river valleys of the most fertile regions in the world, the Neolithic human settlements would eventually prosper and grow into densely populated urban civilizations (pg. 01).

One of the historically important early urban settlements in the Neolithic Near East was ‘Ain Ghazal, in present-day Jordan. The Human Figure from ‘Ain Ghazal represents these major historical changes for human beings. Instead of existing as a very small hand-held form like the “Venus” of Willendorf, the Human Figure of ‘Ain Ghazal is comparatively large, about 35 inches tall. This can be explained by the fact that Neolithic humans were settled and no longer nomadic; there was no longer a need to carry art works from place to place. Instead, the Neolithic humans, including those from ‘Ain Ghazal, created large art works like the Human Figure, which was buried together with other similar figures in underground pits. Archeological evidence suggests that the Human Figure of ‘Ain Ghazal was NOT used as a female fertility symbol or as a communication device to form alliances–as human figure sculptures were used in Paleolithic times. Instead, the Human Figure of ‘Ain Ghazal was likely used as part of rituals related to deceased persons buried beneath the houses of Ain Ghazal. This sheds light on another important change for human beings during the Neolithic period: human settlement and surplus of food allowed spare time for creative activities including the development of more elaborate funerary rituals (Study Guide Chapter 02, pg. 02). Lastly, of note is the difference in material. Instead of being carved from stone as the prehistoric “Venus” of Willendorf, the Neolithic Human Figure of ‘Ain Ghazal is created from fired lime plaster, the same material with which homes’ interiors were finished in ‘Ain Ghazal, as well as houses in earlier Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük in present-day Turkey. The plaster material reinforces the connections between the Human Figure of ‘Ain Ghazal and the urban housing growth of the Neolithic Period; additionally, it serves as a reminder of how human settlement allowed for the development of more complex systems of creating objects, including kilns and other fabrication equipment.

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Students must please submit all assignments as an uploaded file in MS Word doc / MS Word docx format.

There will be a 25% grade deduction for any written submission that is not correctly formatted. Formatting of MS Word doc submissions must adhere to the guidelines and examples shown in the previous module, incluing DOUBLE-SPACING all text, always including the original question and question number in the text.

Questions:

1.

Based upon the text in Chapter 03, please explain in detail the difference between outline, contour line, and implied line. Then, please fully discuss how implied line functions in the early 16th Century Venetian Renaissance painting Assumption and Consecration of the Virgin Mary by Titian.

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to BOTH parts of this question.

This written response is best organized into a minimum of four (4) paragraphs, and will require approximately 500 words minimum in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

2.

The previous Chapter 01 and 02 readings introduced the term iconography. Please define the term iconography, citing from the Vocabulary Guide 1 PDF. Then, based upon the text in Chapter 03, please discuss in detail two (2) specific examples of iconography in Hung Liu’s 2005 painting Relic.

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to BOTH parts of this question.

This written response is best organized into a minimum of three (3) paragraphs, and will require approximately 300 words minimum in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

3.

Citing from the Vocabulary Guide 2 PDF, please define the term medium. Next, based upon the text in Chapter 03, please explain in detail why artist Wenda Gu uses the unusual medium of human hair in the United Citizens Project series, specifically the “United Citizens Project” installation in 1997 in Hong Kong. Please include a full description of Wenda Gu’s “United Citizens Project” installation in 1997 in Hong Kong.

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to ALL THREE (3) parts of this question.

This written response is best organized into three (3) paragraphs, and will require approximately 275 to 300 words in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

4.

PLEASE LEAVE BLANK and move to question 5.

5.

Although negative space is created by physical emptiness, how is negative space used in the Wunkirmian of the Dan people in Liberia and Cote D’Ivoire to communicate generosity and fullness?

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete response to this question.

This written response is best organized into one or two (1 or 2) comprehensive paragraphs, and will require approximately 175 words in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

NOTE: Sometime students copy any and all information available in the textbook about a given example work of art or architecture in order to respond to a question, which only results in deduction of points because it demostrates a lack of critical analysis of the question and the text.

For example, about the Wunkirmian of the Dan people in Liberia and Cote D’Ivoire, the Sayre text includes many observations, including that the spoon “represents the power of the imagination to transform an everyday object….into a container for social good” (Sayre, pg. 72). This sentence does NOT directly support the argument of why negative space or empty space in the Wunkirmian art work is used to communicate fullness and generosity; instead, this sentence addresses how creativity can transform a utilitarian object like a spoon into a form with symbolic meaning. Therefore, this sentence should be omitted –NOT included —in the response.

Students must think critically about the information used to support a specific argument or information used to directly respond to a specific question. Students should never just copy the information available in the textbook about a given example work of art or architecture in order to respond to a question, because that will only results in deduction of points because it demostrates a lack of critical analysis of the question and the text.

6.

Citing from the Vocabulary Guide 2 PDF, please define the term cropping. Based upon the text in Chapter 04, in his 1916 work Abstraction Porch Shadows, how does photographer Paul Strand use cropping to create a more abstract composition?

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to BOTH parts of this question.

This written response is best organized into two (2) paragraphs, and will require approximately 250 words in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

7.

PLEASE LEAVE BLANK and move to question 8.

8.

PLEASE LEAVE BLANK and move to question 9.

9.

Citing from the Vocabulary Guide 2 PDF, please define the terms chiaroscuro and tenebrism, the latter of which featured prominently in the 17th Century Italian Baroque painting. Based upon the text in Chapter 05, how did Italian Baroque painter Artemisia Gentileschi use the techniques of chiaroscuro and tenebrism, as seen in her 1625 painting Judith and Maidservent with the Head of Holofernes, to create a sense of drama?

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to BOTH parts of this question.

This written response is best organized into at least two (2) paragraphs, and will require a minimum of 450 to 500 words in order to be complete. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

10.

The Virgin Mary of Guadalupe of Mexico is one of many avatars of the Virgin Mary, who is venerated in Latin Christianity and Orthodox Christianity as the mother of Jesus. One of the best known early painted icons of the Virgin of Guadalupe is historically dated to the late 17th Century and created by an artist of Spanish descent named Manuel de Arellano. It is important to remember that Mexico was colonized by Spanish settlers and Spanish Catholic missionaries, and Mexico during this time was called “New Spain”. Icons of the Virgin Mary of Guadalupe of Mexico proliferated in the 18th and 19th centuries as devotion to her increased. The text in Chapter 06 features one of these icons, by Isidro Escamilla, and dated from 1864. How is this single image of the Virgin Mary of Guadalupe understood as part of a larger narrative sequence? What is this narrative of such importance to Mexico?

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to BOTH parts of this question.

This written response is best organized into at least two (2) paragraphs, and will require approximately 450 words minimum in order to be complete. Please remember to use citations,as seen in the examples above.

11.

CONSIDER / REFLECT:

Bill Viola’s 1983 work A Room for Saint John of the Cross is both visual and audible, requiring primary human senses of vision and hearing; furthermore, this art installation is spatial and architectural. Please discuss the ways in which the architecture of the cell [evoking the 16th Century prison cell of Saint John] contrasts with the image on the large screen behind it. Then, please discuss in detail the ways in which the artist Bill Viola creates play between light and dark, and between black-and-white and color. Finally, please discuss in depth at least three (3) ways that time might affect viewers’ experience of this art work

* At the end of each chapter in the World of Art textbook, there is a section titled The Critical Process and it features in REVEL as an audio/visual guide. For Chapter 06 (pages 130 and 131), The Critical Process focuses on Bill Viola’s 1983 work Room for Saint John of theCross.

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to all parts of this question. Please note that in the above questions, ways is plural [ways in which the architecture of the cell contrasts with the image on the large screen behind it; ways in which the artist Bill Viola creates play between light and dark, and between black-and-white and color; and, at least three (3) ways in which might time affect viewers’ experience of this art work]. Literally, multiple ways must be explained and discussed.

This written response is best organized into at least two (2) paragraphs, and will require a minimum of 750 to 800 words in order to be complete. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

12.

The Pantheon of ancient Rome was a revolutionary, unprecedented form of architectural engineering (see images below). However, in its design aesthetics, the ancient Roman Pantheon honored previous ancient Greek numeric ratios and proportions. These numeric ratios and proportions —formulated as part of the musical intervals by ancient Greek thinker Pythagorus —were viewed as divine and harmonious. The importance of these numeric ratios was reinforced in the Timeaus, by ancient Greek philosopher Plato, which theorized God’s geometric-musical composing of the universe. The design aesthetics of the ancient Roman Pantheon are based on a perfect conjunction of circle, cylinder and sphere. The enormous concrete dome of the Pantheon is an exact hemisphere which, theoretically, if completed as a whole sphere, would fit precisely in the allotted interior space. The circular area that the dome covers and the height of the structure are the same, which creates the closest of all harmonic proportions, the 1 : 1 unison ratio. The concrete cylindrical drum of the Pantheon is also the height of its own radius, in the proportion of the 1 : 2 octave ratio.

Please discuss and explain how the ancient Roman Pantheon relates to the drawing created over one thousand years later, The Vitruvian Man, late 15th Century, by Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci, seen in Chapter 07 of the text.

Pantheon  2nd Century C.E.  Rome, Italy

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete, comprehensive response to the question.

This written response is best organized into multiple paragraphs, and will require a minimum of 400 words in order to be complete. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

13.

PLEASE LEAVE BLANK and move to question 14.

14.

Please describe in depth the artistic process of Ghanan artist El Anatsui, as evidenced in one of his 2006 sculpture works Between Earth and Heaven, in the text Chapter 07. Please include a description of how pattern is used in Between Earth and Heaven.

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a full, comprehensive response to the question.

This written response is best organized into multiple paragraphs, and will require approximately 400 words minimum in order to be complete and correct. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

15.

Citing the Vocabulary Guide 2 PDF, define focal point.

Then, based upon the text, please identify and explain the multiple focal points used in the 17th Century masterpiece Las Meninas by Spanish painter Diego Velazquez. Please discuss in detail how implied line is used to reinforce a focal point on the infanta Princess Margarita. Also, please explain in depth how Velazquez indicates another important focal point occurring outside of the actual painting. Finally, in review of some previous study in the text, please explain how the painting Las Meninas by Velazquez evidences the influence of earlier Italian Baroque painters Caravaggio and Gentileschi.

Please write, as always, in complete sentences and please write a complete response to ALL FOUR questions.

This written response is best organized into at least two (2) paragraphs, and will require a minimum of 500 to 550 words in order to be complete. Please remember to use citations, as seen in the examples above.

 
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